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References on El Niño and La Niña

El Niño and La Niña


  1. An Examination of ENSO's Effect on the Monthly and Seasonal Climate of Hong Kong from a Statistical Perspective, S.M. Lee & Y.L. Cheng. ACTA Meteorologica Sinica, Vol.25(1) , p34-50, HKO Reprint No. 928 (January 2011)
  2. Effect of ENSO on Winter Monsoon Affecting Hong Kong, M. C. Wu & W. H. Leung. Presented in the 4th WMO International Workshop on Monsoons, Beijing, China, 20-25 October 2008, HKO Reprint No. 789 (October 2008)
  3. Variations of Tropical Cyclone Activity in the South China Sea, Y.K. Leung, M.C. Wu & W.L. Chang. Presented in ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee Annual Review 2005, November 2006, HKO Reprint No. 675 (November 2006)
  4. The effect of ENSO and East Asian Monsoon on the Annual Rainfall in Hong Kong, China, Y.K. Leung & M.C. Wu. Presented in the Sixth Joint Meeting of Seasonal Prediction on East Asian Summer Monsoon, Guilin, China, 11-13 May 2004, HKO Reprint No. 542 (May 2004)
  5. Impacts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Events on Tropical Cyclone Landfalling Activity in the Western North Pacific, M.C. Wu, W.L. Chang & W.M. Leung. Journal of Climate, Vol.17, p1419-1428, March 2004, HKO Reprint No. 545 (March 2004)
  6. Effect of ENSO on Number of Tropical Cyclones Affecting Hong Kong, Y.K. Leung & W.M. Leung. Presented in Workshop on the Network System for Monitoring and Predicting ENSO Event and Sea Temperature Structure of the Warm Pool in the Western Pacific Ocean, Macau, China, 5-7 February 2002. Bulletin of Hong Kong Meteorological Society, Vol.12(1/2), 2002, HKO Reprint No. 453 (Feburary 2002)
  7. Some Impacts of El Niño and La Niña Events on the Weather of Hong Kong, W.L. Chang. Presented in Workshop on the Impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) / La Niña on Meteorology and Hydrology in the Typhoon Committee Area, Macau, 29 June-1 July 1999, HKO Reprint No. 310 (June 1999)
  8. Rainfall in Hong Kong in El Niño Year, C.H. Au & W.L. Chang. Presented in 第十二屆粵港澳重要天氣研討會, Hong Kong, 15-17 Jan 1998, HKO Reprint No. 284 (January 1998, in Chinese only)
  9. Tropical Cyclones in the Western North Pacific in El Niño Years, Y.W. Chan, W.L. Chang, M.C. Wu & C.H. Au. Presented in 第十二屆粵港澳重要天氣研討會, Hong Kong, 15-17 Jan 1998, HKO Reprint No. 285 (January 1998, in Chinese only)
  10. Tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific - From El Niño to La Niña, S.T. Lai. Presented in ICTP/WMO International Technical Conference on long-range weather forecasting research, Trieste, Italy, 8-12 April 1991, WMO/TD No. 395, HKO Reprint No. 220 (April 1991)

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