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El Niño and La Niña
Latest status (January 2019)

Sea surface temperature of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific remained above normal in the past month. Based on the latest oceanic observations as well as forecasts by a number of climate models around the world, the central and eastern equatorial Pacific is likely to remain warmer than normal in the coming months and develop into an El Niño near the end of this winter (December 2018 – February 2019).

Sea surface temperature anomalies
(Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA)

Figure 1    Sea surface temperature anomalies of 16 December 2018 – 12 January 2019 in degree Celsius.


1. The next update will be available in the latter half of February 2019.

Related links:
What are El Niño, La Niña, ENSO?
The impact of El Niño and La Niña on the climate of Hong Kong
Seasonal and annual rainfall charts
Blogs relating to El Niño/La Niña
References on El Niño and La Niña
Seasonal forecastAnnual outlookClimate change

For further information on this webpage, please contact Mr. F C Sham (tel:2926 3102,