The Year's Weather – 2022
Globally, 2022 is likely to be the fifth or sixth warmest year on record according to the World Meteorological Organization’s preliminary assessment. Global mean sea level continued to rise, reaching a new record high in 2022. Over the Arctic, sea-ice extent was below average for most of the time in 2022 and the minimum sea-ice extent in September was one of the eleventh lowest in the satellite record. In 2022, various extreme weather events continued to batter different parts of the world, including heatwaves in Pakistan, China, Europe, Mediterranean region and North Africa; blizzards in North America and Japan; severe drought in the Greater Horn of Africa region, China, and many parts of Europe and the Mediterranean; extreme rainfall triggered severe flooding in Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Australia and eastern South Africa; and severe damages and heavy casualties brought by tropical cyclones in Madagascar, Mozambique, Malawi, western Caribbean and the Philippines.
Sea surface temperatures of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific were persistently below normal in 2022. A La Niña event was established in March 2022 and persisted throughout the year.
In Hong Kong, with a record-breaking hot July and the warmest autumn from September to November, the weather was warmer than usual in 2022 with an annual mean temperature of 23.9 degrees, 0.4 degree above the 1991-2020 normal and among the sixth warmest since records began in 1884. The annual mean maximum temperature of 26.7 degrees and annual mean minimum temperature of 22.0 degrees were also the fifth and one of the seventh highest on record respectively. The highest temperature recorded at the Hong Kong Observatory in the year was 36.1 degrees on 24 July, one of the third highest on record. There were 52 Hot Nights and 52 Very Hot Days in Hong Kong in 2022, both ranking the second highest on record. Moreover, there were 15 days with daily maximum temperatures at the Observatory equal to or higher than 35.0 degrees in 2022, the highest on record.
The lowest temperature recorded at the Observatory in the year was 7.5 degrees on 21 February. The number of Cold Days in the year was 13 days, 2.2 days less than the 1991-2020 normal.
Fig.1 Monthly mean temperature anomalies (against the 1991-2020 normal) in Hong Kong in 2022
Fig.2 Long-term time series of number of Hot Nights in Hong Kong 1884-2022
Fig.3 Long-term time series of number of Very Hot Days in Hong Kong 1884-2022
Fig.4 Long-term time series of number of Cold Days in Hong Kong 1884-2022
Fig. 5 Long-term time series of annual mean temperature in Hong Kong 1885-2022
The annual total rainfall in 2022 was 2205.4 millimetres, about 9 percent below the 1991-2020 normal of 2431.2 millimetres. Two red rainstorm warnings were issued by the Observatory in the year. The number of days with thunderstorms reported in Hong Kong was 25 days in 2022, about 17 days less than the 1991-2020 normal.
Fig. 6 Monthly rainfall anomalies (against the 1991-2020 normal) in Hong Kong in 2022
Fig.7 Annual rainfall distribution in Hong Kong in 2022 (in mm)
A total of 27 tropical cyclones occurred over the western North Pacific and the South China Sea in 2022, less than the long-term (1961-2020) average of about 30. There were 11 tropical cyclones reaching typhoon intensity or above during the year, less than the long-term average of about 15, and four of them reached super typhoon intensity (with maximum 10-minute wind speed of 185 km/h or above near the centre). In Hong Kong, six tropical cyclones necessitated the issuance of tropical cyclone warning signals, near the long-term average in a year. The No. 8 Gale or Storm Signals were issued during the passages of Chaba in July, Ma-on in August and Nalgae in November.
Detailed description of the weather for individual months is available on the Monthly Weather Summary webpage:
Some significant weather events in Hong Kong in 2022 are highlighted below:
An extremely dry and sunny April
With dry northeast monsoon affecting Hong Kong and less moisture supply to the south China coast for most of the time in the month, April 2022 was much drier than usual in Hong Kong. The total rainfall in the month was 3.5 millimetres, only about 2 percent of the normal figure of 153.0 millimetres and the lowest on record for April. Moreover, the monthly mean relative humidity was 73 percent, the lowest on record for April since 1961. The month was also much sunnier than usual, the total duration of bright sunshine in the month was 191.1 hours, about 69 percent above the normal of 113.2 hours and the fifth highest on record for April.
Heavy rain on 11-13 May
An active trough of low pressure over the northern part of southern China edged south on 10 May 2022 and lingered along the coast of Guangdong in the next few days. The trough of low pressure brought heavy showers and squally thunderstorms to the Pearl River Estuary areas on 11 – 13 May 2022. In Hong Kong, more than 300 millimetres of rainfall were generally recorded over the territory and rainfall even exceeded 400 millimetres over parts of Hong Kong Island on these three days. The heavy rain on the morning of 13 May 2022 also necessitated the issuance of the first Red Rainstorm Warning Signal of the year.
Strike of Chaba
Tropical cyclone Chaba formed over the central part of the South China Sea in late June 2022. It then moved towards the coast of western Guangdong and made landfall over there on 2 July 2022. With the approach of Chaba, local winds strengthened significantly later on 1 July 2022, necessitating the issuance of the first No.8 Gale or Storm Signal in this year and also the first time on the HKSAR Establishment Day. Strong to gale force winds generally affected the territory on 2 July 2022, with occasional storm force winds offshore and on high ground at first. The outer rainbands of Chaba also brought heavy squally showers and thunderstorms to Hong Kong on 30 June - 3 July 2022. More than 150 millimetres of rainfall were generally recorded over Hong Kong on these four days and rainfall even exceeded 250 millimetres over parts of Hong Kong Island.
A July with record-breaking high temperatures
With a stronger than usual subtropical ridge persisting over southern China and bringing prolonged high temperature weather to the region in the month, July 2022 was the hottest month in Hong Kong since records began in 1884, breaking the previous record set in July 2020. The monthly mean temperature of 30.3 degrees and monthly mean minimum temperature of 28.4 degrees were 1.4 degrees and 1.5 degrees above their normals and both were the highest of the correspondingly monthly mean values on record. Moreover, the monthly mean maximum temperature of 33.3 degrees was 1.7 degrees above the normal and one of the highest on record. There were 10 days with daily maximum temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory equal to or higher than 35.0 degrees, the highest number in a month on record. With a total of 25 hot nights, July 2022 was the month with the highest number of hot nights on record and the 21 consecutive hot nights that started from 9 July 2022 also set a new record. Moreover, there were 21 very hot days in the month, the highest number of very hot days in a month on record.
Nalgae – the storm in November
After wreaking havoc in the Philippines, severe tropical storm Nalgae moved north-northwestwards across the central and northern parts of the South China Sea towards the coast of Guangdong on 30 October - 1 November 2022. It continued to edge closer to the coast of Guangdong on 2 November 2022, but weakened into a tropical storm in the afternoon due to the influence of the northeast monsoon. Nalgae skirted past the southern waters of Hong Kong on the night of 2 November 2022 and came closest to the south-southwest of Hong Kong on the early morning of 3 November 2022. It then made landfall over Zhuhai. With the approach of Nalgae, the Observatory issued the No.8 Gale or Storm Signal on the afternoon of 2 November 2022. Nalgae was the third tropical cyclone requiring the issuance of the No. 8 Signal in Hong Kong in November since records began in 1946. The last time when the No. 8 Signal was issued in November was in 1972. Strong to gale force winds generally affected Hong Kong with occasional storm force winds offshore and on high ground later on 2 November 2022 and at first on 3 November 2022. The outer rainbands of Nalgae also brought occasional squally showers to Hong Kong on 2 – 3 November 2022. More than 30 millimetres of rainfall were generally recorded over Hong Kong on these two days and rainfall even exceeded 80 millimetres over the urban areas and the eastern part of the territory.
Hong Kong experienced the warmest autumn on record from September to November 2022. The mean maximum temperature of 29.2 degrees and the mean temperature of 26.4 degrees were both the highest on record for autumn. Moreover, the mean minimum temperature of 24.4 degrees was also one of the highest on record for autumn.
 Climatological normals for the reference period of 1961-1990, 1971-2000, 1981-2010 and 1991-2020 are available at: https://www.weather.gov.hk/en/cis/normal.htm. Climatological normals of 1991-2020 are referenced in the text unless otherwise stated.
 'Hot Night' refers to the condition with the daily minimum temperature equal to or higher than 28.0 degrees.
 'Very Hot Day' refers to the condition with the daily maximum temperature equal to or higher than 33.0 degrees.
 'Cold Day' refers to the condition with the daily minimum temperature equal to or lower than 12.0 degrees.
 Information on the classification of Tropical Cyclones is available at: https://www.weather.gov.hk/en/informtc/class.htm
Table 1a Summary of record-breaking high temperature events in 2022
(since records began in 1884)
|Date / Period||New Record|
|1. Fewest number of Cold Days for January(on par with January 1901, January 1996 and January 2017)||January 2022||0 Days|
|2. Highest Mean Maximum Temperature for March||March 2022||25.0℃|
|3. Highest Daily Maximum Temperature for Great Heat||23 July 2022||34.9℃|
|4. Highest Temperature at Sheung Shui Weather Station (since records began in 2004)||24 July 2022||39.0℃|
|5. Highest Maximum Temperature for July||24 July 2022||36.1℃|
|6. Highest Daily Mean Temperature for July||24 and 25 July 2022||32.0℃|
|7. Highest Daily Minimum Temperature for July||25 July 2022||29.9℃|
|8. Highest Mean Maximum Temperature for July (on par with July 2020)||July 2022||33.3℃|
|9. Highest Mean Temperature for July||July 2022||30.3℃|
|10. Highest Mean Minimum Temperature for July||July 2022||28.4℃|
|11. Highest Mean Maximum Temperature for All Months (on par with July 2020)||July 2022||33.3℃|
|12. Highest Mean Temperature for All Months||July 2022||30.3℃|
|13. Highest Mean Minimum Temperature for All Months||July 2022||28.4℃|
|14. Highest Number of Days with Maximum Temperature ≥ 35.0℃ for July||July 2022||10 Days|
|15. Highest Number of Days with Maximum Temperature ≥35.0℃ for All Months||July 2022||10 Days|
|16. Highest Number of Very Hot Days for July||July 2022||21 Days|
|17. Highest Number of Very Hot Days for All Months||July 2022||21 Days|
|18. Highest Number of Hot Nights for July||July 2022||25 Days|
|19. Highest Number of Hot Nights for All Months||July 2022||25 Days|
|20. Highest Number of Consecutive Hot Nights for July||9 – 29 July 2022||21 Days|
|21. Highest Number of Consecutive Hot Nights for All Months||9 – 29 July 2022||21 Days|
|22. Highest Number of Days with Maximum Temperature ≥ 35.0℃ for August (on par with August 1900)||August 2022||2 Days|
|23. Highest Maximum Temperature for September||13 September 2022||35.9℃|
|24. Highest Daily Mean Temperature for September||13 and 14 September 2022||31.7℃|
|25. Highest Daily Minimum Temperature for September||14 September 2022||29.6℃|
|26. Highest Number of Days with Maximum Temperature ≥ 35.0℃ for September||September 2022||3 Days|
|27. Highest Daily Maximum Temperature for Chung Yeung Festival||4 October 2022||33.5℃|
|28. Highest Mean Maximum Temperature for October (on par with October 2019)||October 2022||29.5℃|
|29. Highest Number of Very Hot Days for October (on par with October 1890)||October 2022||2 Days|
|30. Highest Mean Maximum Temperature for autumn||September to November 2022||29.2℃|
|31. Highest Mean Temperature for autumn||September to November 2022||26.4℃|
|32. Highest Mean Minimum Temperature for autumn (on par with 2015)||September to November 2022||24.4℃|
|33. Highest Annual Number of Consecutive Hot Nights||9 – 29 July 2022||21 Days|
|34. Highest Annual Number of Days with Maximum Temperature ≥35.0℃||2022||15 Days|
Table 1b Summary of other record-breaking extreme weather events in 2022
|Record-breaking Events||Date / Period||New Record|
|1. Lowest Relative Humidity for April (since the automatic weather station was established at the Observatory's Headquarters in 1984)||8 April 2022||22%|
|2. Lowest Mean Relative Humidity for April (since 1961)||April 2022||73%|
|3. Lowest Total Rainfall for April (since 1884)||April 2022||3.5 mm|
|4. Lowest Daily Mean Temperature for May (since 1884)||2 May 2022||18.5℃|
|5. Lowest Total Hours of Bright Sunshine for November (since 1884)||November 2022||100.3 Hours|
|6. Highest Mean RH for November (since 1961)||November 2022||83%|
Table 2a Summary of meteorological observations in Hong Kong, 2022
|Station||Hong Kong Observatory|
Trace means rainfall less than 0.05 mm
Table 2b Summary of meteorological observations in Hong Kong, 2022
Number of hours
of Reduced Visibility#
|King's Park||Waglan Island|
# Visibility below 8 km when there is no fog, mist, or precipitation
§ 1997-2020 Mean value
Table 2c Summary of meteorological observations in Hong Kong, 2022
Number of Very Hot Days
Number of Hot Nights
Number of Cold Days
Number of Days with
|Station||Hong Kong Observatory|