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Acute Effects and Latent Effects

According to the time for the effects to occur, the biological effects of radiation can be divided into two categories: a) acute effects and b) latent effects.

Acute effects

There are three types of acute effects of radiation:

  1. Haematopoietic syndrome
  2. Gastrointestinal syndrome
  3. Central Nervous syndrome

The relationship between acute effects and absorbed dose are listed below:

Symptoms Absorbed dose (Gy)
No Apparent symptoms 0.5 - 1.5
Light degree of radiation sickness, nausea and vomiting, temporary reduction in white blood cells, light degree of haematopoietic syndrome 1.5 - 4
Severe radiation sickness, serious damage of the blood forming organs and damage in gastrointestinal system at high dosage 4 - 6
Acute radiation sicknesses become apparent. Major clinical syndromes are damage of the gastrointestinal system 6 - 20
Damage of the central nervous system with severe pathological developments Tens of gray

Latent effects

Latent effects of radiation refer to those which occur 6 months after the exposure. It consists of two categories: somatic effects and genetic effects. The former refers to the effects occur on the exposed individuals (e.g. cataracts, radiation sickness, cancers, etc.) while the latter occurs in their future generations because of mutations of the genetic cells.

The above information is provided by RHD of DHDepartment of Health