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Summary of model configurations for seasonal forecast computation

As part of its seasonal forecasting initiative, the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) adapted a regional climate model (RCM) developed by Experimental Climate Prediction Centre (ECPC) of the University of California at San Diego in 2001 (Hui et. al., 2001). The RCM is based on a regional spectral model (RSM) of National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the United States originally developed for short-range weather prediction (Juang and Kanamitsu, 1994). The RSM was later successfully adapted to operate in regional climate modelling applications (Hong and Leetmaa, 1999).

After a few years of using the RCM to provide seasonal forecasts for Hong Kong on experimental basis, the Observatory adapted another numerical model suite, also from ECPC in 2006, to replace the original RCM. The Global-Regional Climate Model (G-RCM) suite consists of a Global Spectral Model (GSM) and the latest version of the RCM of ECPC. It began providing seasonal forecasts on the web in Summer of 2007.



Hong, S.-Y. and Leetmaa, A.: 1999, An evaluation of the NCEP RSM for regional climate modeling, J. Climate 12, 592-609.

Hui, T.W., Yeung, K.H., and Chang, W.L.: 2001, Adaptation of NCEP RSM model for long-range forecasting, the Third RSM International Conference, Taipei, China, 23-27 July 2001. Hong Kong Observatory Reprint No., 436, available online from

Juang, H.-M.H. and Kanamitsu, M.: 1994, The NMC nested regional spectral model, Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 3-26.

Last revision date: <20 Feb 2014>