November 2016 was characterized by relatively warm weather during the first three weeks, followed by rainy and cooler weather in the latter part of the month. Overall, the month was warmer and much wetter than usual. The mean temperature for the month was 22.3 degrees, 0.5 degree above the normal figure of 21.8 degrees. The monthly total rainfall recorded at the Hong Kong Observatory was 131.3 millimetres, more than three times the November normal of 37.6 millimetres and the eighth highest on record for November. The accumulated rainfall of 3020.2 millimetres up to end of November was about 27 percent above the normal figure of 2371.7 millimetres for the same period.
Under the influence of a continental airstream, the weather in Hong Kong was generally fine and dry for the first seven days of the month. As a cold front moved across the coast of Guangdong on 8 November, local weather became cloudy with a few rain patches that day. Temperatures fell over the next couple of days as cool air reached the coastal areas under freshening northerly winds and rain became more widespread over the territory.
With the northeast monsoon moderating, rain eased off on 11 November and sunny periods appeared on 12 and 13 November. Under the influence of an upper-air anticyclone, the weather became generally fine and rather warm as temperatures at the Hong Kong Observatory rose to a maximum of 29.2 degrees on 15 November, the highest of the month. A freshening of easterly winds the next day brought cloudier weather, and after a fine day on 17 November, moist maritime air moved back towards the coast of Guangdong over the next few days, bringing with it a mixture of sunshine, clouds and rain patches.
Easterly winds strengthened and rain became heavier on 22 November. The arrival of a cold front the next day brought appreciably cooler weather. Meanwhile, rain started to ease off as drier continental air reached the south China coastal areas with some sunny intervals in Hong Kong on 24 and 25 November. Yet the moist maritime air was never too far away from the coast and coupled with a replenishment of the northeast monsoon, rainy weather returned on 26 November. As northerly winds strengthened, temperatures fell during the day and dropped to a minimum of 12.8 degrees at the Hong Kong Observatory the next morning, the lowest of the month.
With the setting in of dry continental air, sunny periods emerged later on 27 November and the weather remained mostly fine and dry towards the end of the month.
Three tropical cyclones occurred over the South China Sea and the western North Pacific in the month.
Details of issuance and cancellation of various warnings/signals in the month are summarized in Tables 1.1 to 1.2. Monthly meteorological figures and departures from normal for November are tabulated in Table 2.
|Beginning Time||Ending Time|
|22 / 11||2245||24 / 11||0915|
|26 / 11||1145||27 / 11||0645|
|Colour||Beginning Time||Ending Time|
|Yellow||6 / 11||0600||6 / 11||1800|
|Yellow||13 / 11||1130||13 / 11||1800|
|Yellow||20 / 11||0945||20 / 11||1800|
|Yellow||27 / 11||1145||27 / 11||1830|
|Meteorological Element||Figure of the Month||Departure from Normal*|
|Mean Daily Maximum Air Temperature||24.5 degrees C||0.4 degree above normal|
|Mean Air Temperature||22.3 degrees C||0.5 degree above normal|
|Mean Daily Minimum Air Temperature||20.3 degrees C||0.5 degree above normal|
|Mean Dew Point Temperature||18.3 degrees C||2.3 degrees above normal|
|Mean Relative Humidity||79 %||8 % above normal|
|Mean Cloud Amount||68 %||14 % above normal|
|Total Rainfall||131.3 mm||93.7 mm above normal|
|Number of hours of Reduced VisibilityΔ||25 hours||110.8 hours below normal§|
|Total Bright Sunshine Duration||138.3 hours||41.8 hours below normal|
|Mean Daily Global Solar Radiation||11.25 Megajoule / square metre||1.03 Megajoule below normal|
|Total Evaporation||84.7& mm||14.8 mm below normal|
|Remarks :||All measurements were made at the Hong Kong Observatory except sunshine,
solar radiation and evaporation which were recorded at King's Park
Meteorological Station and visibility which was observed at the Hong
Kong International Airport.
The visibility readings at the Hong Kong International Airport are based on hourly observations by professional meteorological observers in 2004 and before, and average readings over the 10-minute period before the clock hour of the visibility meter near the middle of the south runway from 2005 onwards. The change of the data source in 2005 is an improvement of the visibility assessment using instrumented observations following the international trend.
* Departure from 1981 - 2010 climatological normal, except for number of hours of reduced visibility
§ Departure from mean value between 1997 and 2015
& Data incomplete
|Remarks :||Extremely high: above 95th percentile
Above normal: between 75th and 95th percentile
Normal: between 25th and 75th percentile
Below normal: between 5th and 25th percentile
Extremely low: below 5th percentile
Percentile and 5-day running average values are
computed based on the data from 1981 to 2010