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El Niño and La Niña
Latest status (October 2018)

In the past month, sea surface temperatures of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific remained within the normal range. Based on the latest oceanic observations as well as forecasts by a number of climate models around the world, sea surface temperatures over the region are expected to rise and the development of El Niño is likely to start in the next couple of months.

Sea surface temperature anomalies
(Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA)

Figure 1    Sea surface temperature anomalies of 16 September – 13 October 2018 in degree Celsius.


1. The next update will be available in the latter half of November 2018.

Related links:
What are El Niño, La Niña, ENSO?
The impact of El Niño and La Niña on the climate of Hong Kong
Seasonal and annual rainfall charts
Blogs relating to El Niño/La Niña
References on El Niño and La Niña
Seasonal forecastAnnual outlookClimate change

For further information on this webpage, please contact Mr. F C Sham (tel:2926 3102,